- What are the differences between message confidentiality and message integrity
- Reasons why some Internet entities might want secure communication
- Attributes of an 8-block cipher
- Symmetric Encryption vs Public Key Encryption
- Why does a Hash provide better message integrity then an Internet checksum?
- Monoalphabetic Cipher and Inverse Written in Python
- Block cipher lab
Why does a Hash provide better message integrity then an Internet checksum?
Hash function and checksum function both return a value which cannot be reversed.
An Internet checksum (TCP checksum or IP checksum) is designed to detect common errors quickly and efficiently. An Internet checksum does not attempt to prevent collisions. Man cksum for more info.
A Hash provides better message integrity because it has less collisions then an Internet checksum. A collision means there is more then one way to produce the same sum. A great hash function aims to reduce the occurrence of collisions. Man md5 and sha for more info.What is a collision
Let H() be a hash function. Let x and y be two differing messages. H(x) = H(y) would be a collision.
I like to use python to show examples of hash functions
In this example I pass a message into the MD5 hash function to produce a resulting hash of the message. You can think of this hashed output as a finger print of the message.
import hashlib as h message = "This message will be placed into an MD5 hash function to authenticate its integrity." print h.md5(message).hexdigest()
Now If I passed that message to you along with its MD5 hash hex representation, you could put the message into your own MD5 hash function and compare the resulting hash. This method is used to validate the message or verify data integrity.
Can you “decrypt” a hash of a message to get the original message
No! A hash may not be reversed, which means it cannot be decrypted.
By design a hash algorithm has no inverse, there is no way to get the original message from the hash. This is good news, turns out we have some really great applications for this type of function. We can validate messages, we can securely store passwords, and we can quickly determine if a message or file has been tampered with.
When using a publicly known hash function for storing password hashes, make sure to always use a salt or shared secret. Failure to do so will make your storage scheme susceptible to a rainbow table attack. A rainbow table allows a cracker to quickly match a list of hashes with a table of previously computed hash values and correlated passwords.
What is salt or a shared secret?
You can use salt or a shared secret to add extra data to a message before hashing with a publicly known algorithm. Below I will document how to properly add salt to a message before generating a SHA256 hash.
import hashlib as h message = "This message and some salt will be hashed with SHA 256." salt = "This is some secret salt data" print h.sha256(message+salt).hexdigest()
Adding a salt to the message allows us to use a publicly know algorithm in a more protected manner.
Can you spot the error in the python code below?
import hashlib as h message = "This message and some salt will be hashed with SHA 256." salt = "This is some secret salt data" print h.sha256(message).hexdigest()+salt
If you guessed that the message and salt BOTH need to be hashed together then you are correct!
The above code would have produced the following invalid hash:
79cd4bfa1bcb71a7a1b5bfd5e8cfc8368a6cc6cb836d24bf04f2ef2bd0e81261This is some secret salt data
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